Monday, December 9, 2019

Auditing Theory and Risk Assessment Practice Free Sample

Questions: 1. List and discuss several factors that would have contributed to an increased subjective risk assessment at the financial statement level. Also, identify which of these factors may be identified during the strategic business risk assessment. 2.Inherent risk factors that would have contributed to an increased inherent risk assessment at the account balance level. 3.Assessment of the issue of going concern as either low, medium or high. Answers: Introduction Examination of business financial operation through auditing has been a major concern in the line of business. For any business entity to identify its level of growth and development there must be a proper assessment conducted in the firm. Most of the operations in the economic sector highly depend on the nature of auditing, therefore, several principles have then been developed to assist in the elimination of risks and perils which may be accrued during auditing (Lpez and Peters 2012). These hypothesis have been designed by worlds financial reporting framework establishments such as GAAP and IFRS to direct auditing practices. Several policies have also been developed to assist auditors in making corrections on the risks which may face them during financial assessment. The way of examining and duty of review group guarantees the accomplishment of an organization inside the business or worldwide business sector. In the later past, hypotheses like going concern has been produced. Usage and routine of these stipulated issues stay in the hands of examiners and the leading group of administration of any given entity. The extent of this paper explores the use of these present issues in One.Tel Company in Australia. The organization has been in operation in media transmission industry since May 1995 in the wake of being propelled in Sydney. The paper further examines natural danger in the organization budgetary reports and the issue of going concern. 1. Understanding of Inherent Risk Inherent risk is one of the review dangers oversaw under risk evaluation. Review hazard includes three sorts of dangers. These dangers are inherent danger, control dangers and the detective hazard. Assessment risks is considered as the result of the three dangers as shown previously. It might be experienced amid evaluating execution which for this situation is One.Tel Telecommunication Company. Inherent risk is subsequently a segment of the review which comes as a consequence of material misquote inside the money related articulation. Incorrectness happens in an organization's assessment reports due to underutilization of important control measures (Chung et al. 2012). Inherent dangers emerge for the most part because of the mistake of oversights in the adjustments of the organization books of records. On account of One.Tel Company, intrinsic dangers may have emerged because of disappointments and poor utilization of the control measures. The event of disappointments because of inher ent might be as an aftereffect of oversight and fake practice during auditing. Inherent risk can be high or low within an organizations financial reports depending on the prevailing business environments. Some of the factors which may lead to high inherent risks are as discussed below. Factors Which Affect Inherent Risk at the Financial Report Level Legitimacy of Company Administrators The expansion in inherent risk in One.Tel Telecommunication Company might be as a consequence of the inadequacy of the leading group of the Directorate. The organization's administration is made of nine individuals having distinctive powers and benefits. The board is made up of five none-official individuals shaping up most of the board individuals. There are other four official individuals having a full order to everything inside the organization (Coetsee 2010). The rate at which the inherent risk is increasing in One.Tel media transmission organization is high as indicated by the case of study. The board of management is committed to a great deal of obligations which includes: approval of corporate and budgetary procedures, distinguishing and addressing issues of great concern confronting One.Tel as an organization, checking on and observing administration procedures and reporting instruments, regulating money related execution and arrangement of the senior administration group. Th e organization has developed as far as possible where the administration group of nine personalities can't meet every one of their commitments. The chiefs will probably conceal their poor notorieties, along these lines, neglecting to create important articulations amid evaluating prompting an expansion in the characteristic danger due to poor administration. Management Understanding, Alertness and Instabilities During Financial Assessment Period The wastefulness in the administration of the organization and absence of learning encourages wrong readiness of the budgetary report prompting an increment in the inherent risk. Once the examiner recognizes standard workforce turnover in basic administration areas, there is possibilities of arising inherent risk in light of the fact that honest identities are prone to leave their official positions as opposed to proliferate some extortion. This generally happens when the organization extends quickly as reflected on account of One.Tel Telecommunication Company (Herda and Lavelle 2012). Unusual Pressure on Organization Management There may be inducements for administration to misstate the financial report increasing the inherent risk. The incentives in can be either from the internal environment or the external environment (Kerler and Brandon 2010). The incentives may be cash flow problems, poor liquidity rationing, poor operating results due to management limitation and work overstretch and connection of management compensation pay schemes tied to share capital and earnings. This may lead to an increase in the inherent risk since management may be induced to misstate operating and financial statements to acquire some bonus. Nature of the Kind of Venture One.Tel is Operating Various issues have been acknowledged in the business or industry in which One.Tel Company operates. The company has a complex investment organization, which is an aid to increase inherent risk. The existence of related-party transactions such as the company shareholders would also increase inherent risk as the operations are not with the self-regulating party (Al Nawaiseh and Jaber 2015). The company has got capital share transactions which require a lot of financial know-how to audit since such operations are complicated. The company operates in larger geographical context and generates a lot of income through sales. In review of the given case, One.Tel Company gained huge sum of money in the previous trading period. The company received a total income of $687.2 million where $429.4 million revenue came from Australia, $144.7 million UK, $15.1million France, $ 36.6 Netherlands, Hong Kong $39.2 and $ 13.2 million from other trading regions. This indicates how Telecommunication compa nies have probably recompenses until they inaugurated a standing, and a trustworthy income source inherent risk will keep on rising. Telecommunication industry is facing a challenge which requires a company in the industry to apply controls mechanism to be stable and remain relevant in the industry. Since new economies and unstable economies result in high inherent risk than stable economies. Factors Affecting the Industry in which the Entity Operates Variations in commercial and competitive environments would be anticipated to have a significant influence on the inherent risk of an entity like one.tel in the telecommunication industry. Factors such as imbalance in the revenue and growth in some telecommunication service providers may lead to a rise in the inherent risk during financial statement preparations. Throughout risk assessment stage the company audit team goes through the risks identified like the inherent risk discussed above. The team or the auditor evaluates the factors of the risks through fair evaluation (Martin 2013). Evaluation of risks results into two types of risks which in this case is an inherent risk. The identified risk is a component of material misstatement of the financial statement motivated by several factors. Factors relating to fraud can be identified during strategy development process whereas those factor that increase inherent risk due to fraud identifiable via the AU section 316. Accounts likely to Require Adjustment When the books of accounts are being adjusted to fit to the demands of business in the recent trading period there is likeness of errors to occur. These errors may be due to omissions, oversight, imaginary conclusions by accountants or as a result of errors carried forward. In such situations the rate of inherent risk is considered to be high as a product of errors. Complexity of Fundamental Transactions If the deal during a trading period is complicated, it is likely that there will be an increase in inherent risk. In consideration of One.Tel Telecommunication Company, the books of accounts indicates complex types of transactions such as the shareholder's inequity, reserves and dividend. Challenging transactions are prone to errors as they are difficult to understand leading to high inherent risk at the accounting level. Conclusion Involved in Determining Account Balances The kind of judgment made by the auditor during the process of balancing of auditors is likely to influence inherent risk. In case the account report on a given transaction may be induced by some factors within the company (Reichelt and Wang 2010). These judgments can be affected by the type of operation and the management pressure. Susceptibility of Assets to Loss or Misappropriation The susceptibility of the companys assets to loss or misappropriations leads to increased inherent risk at the accounting level. During the transaction entries, it is evident that simple misappropriation of an asset result into accelerated inherent risk. For instance taking misplacement of an asset to liability may lead to an increase in the inherent risk (Herd and Lavelle 2014). The Occurrence of Unusual and Complex Transactions, Particularly at or near Year-End The manifestation of substantial trades during the trading period has a possible increase the inherent risk (Skinner and Srinivasan 2012). When an unfamiliar transaction occurs precisely towards the end of a trading period, there are high chances of errors in the books of accounts. Such different operations may be a challenge to the auditor and accountants and may result in high inherent risk. Transactions not Subject to Usual Processing The degree of an upturn in the inherent risk is high at the bookkeeping level when we make dealings which require unfamiliar processing. In the event of such case the auditor of a business entity like One.Tel Telecommunication Company may make mistakes leading to an increase in inherent risk as a result of limited knowledge of such transactions. 3. The ongoing concern builds on the auditors' assessment whether low, medium or high in correlation to inherent risk and control risk (Francis 2011). The detection risk during the evaluation is maintained at the lowest level to keep the audit risk at the recommended rate. Minimum detection risk can be accomplished through scope test enhancement. Due to the argument, it is evident that the going concern can be either high, medium or low based on the three type of risk. The issue of going concern in relation to One.Tel Companys case can be considered to be high. Inherent in the companys financial statement is deemed to be high since the company operates in a highly controlled industry. In this situation, the companys going concern is considered to be high (Chang, Dasgupta and Hilar 2009). Other factors such as the detective risk and control risk are seen to be high according to the nature of the business entity. In application of the knowledge acquired it is clearly evident that the g oing concern can be high, low or medium. Conclusion It is clear from the above discussion that the rate of going concern depends more on the kind of risks in the financial statement. In the event of low audit risk, the nature of going concern remains low whereas when the types of a risk is medium or high, the going concern is either low or high. Even though the assumption may be correct, it is hard to regulate the following circumstances that may lead to the continuous application of a going concern (Knechel et al. 2012). The nature of a going concern in accompany depends on the application of the stipulated financial framework. The above discussed issues should therefore be given proper assessment as per the financial stipulated framework of GAAP and IFRS. References Al Nawaiseh, M.A.L. and Jaber, J., 2015. Auditing subsequent events from the perspective of auditors: study from Jordan. International Journal of Financial Research, 6(3), p.p78. Chang, X., Dasgupta, S. and Hilary, G., 2009. The effect of auditor quality on financing decisions. The Accounting Review, 84(4), pp.1085-1117. Chung, J.O., Cullinan, C.P., Frank, M., Long, J.H., Mueller-Phillips, J. and O'Reilly, D.M., 2012. The auditor's approach to subsequent events: Insights from the academic literature. Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory, 32(sp1), pp.167-207. Coetsee, D., 2010. The role of accounting theory in the development of accounting principles. Meditari Accountancy Research, 18(1), pp.1-16. Francis, J.R., 2011. A framework for understanding and researching audit quality. Auditing: A journal of practice theory, 30(2), pp.125-152. Herda, D.N. and Lavelle, J.J., 2012. Auditor commitment to privately held clients and its effect on value-added audit service. Auditing: A journal of practice theory, 32(1), pp.113-137. Herda, D.N. and Lavelle, J.J., 2014. Auditing Subsequent Events: Perspectives from the Field. Current Issues in Auditing, 8(2), pp.A10-A24. Humphrey, C. and Miller, P., 2012. Rethinking impact and redefining responsibility: The parameters and coordinates of accounting and public management reforms. Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal, 25(2), pp.295-327. Iwu, C.G. and Xesha, D., 2011. Used Bookstore as a Vehicle for Improved Learning and Development: The Case of a South Africans Tertiary Institution. Janvrin, D.J. and Jeffrey, C.G., 2007. An investigation of auditor perceptions about subsequent events and factors that influence this audit task. Accounting Horizons, 21(3), pp.295-312. Knechel, W.R., Krishnan, G.V., Pevzner, M., Shefchik, L.B. and Velury, U.K., 2012. Audit quality: Insights from the academic literature. Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory, 32(sp1), pp.385-421. Lpez, D.M. and Peters, G.F., 2012. The effect of workload compression on audit quality. Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory, 31(4), pp.139-165. Martin, R.D., 2013. Audit quality indicators: Audit practice meets audit research. Current issues in auditing, 7(2), pp.A17-A23. Reichelt, K.J. and Wang, D., 2010. National and office specific measures of auditor industry expertise and effects on audit quality. Journal of Accounting Research, 48(3), pp.647-686. Skinner, D. J. and Srinivasan, S. 2012. Audit quality and auditor reputation: Evidence from Japan. The Accounting Review, 87(5), 1737-1765. Thompson, T.R., 1960. Problems of Auditing Computing Data: Internal Audit Practice and External Audit Theory Section 1: Internal Audit. The Computer Journal, 3(1), pp.10-11. Unegbu, A.O., 2014. Theories of Accounting: Evolution Developments, Income-Determination and Diversities in Use. arXiv preprint arXiv:1411.4633.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The Importance of Music Nowadays Research Paper Example

The Importance of Music Nowadays Paper Music has accompanied people from time immemorial. In ancient times, music was part of religious ritual; in the Middles Ages, the first polyphonic compositions were written to praise God, and from the Renaissance, the world has seen an enormous development of different music forms. Today, you can hear music everywhere, at a concert, at home and even in a supermarket. It is difficult to imagine what the world would be like if there were no music. In this essay, I will examine this subject from the point of view of the professional musician and the music teacher, and to make the picture more complete, I will give my views. What, then, is music or how is this concept understood? If you ask a graduate of a conservatoire, or consult an encyclopaedia, you will know that music is the art of combining sounds into a unified whole, usually for an aesthetic purpose. This definition means that any piece of music has to be written by someone. For most of us, however, music is something we take for granted. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Music Nowadays specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Music Nowadays specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Music Nowadays specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer You can buy a CD for a tiny fraction of your salary, or using your computer, at the flick of a switch, you can get the latest hits for free. Therefore, it is no wonder that the status of music has diminished substantially in the last fifty years. Professional musicians – who, as usual in such cases, should earn fame and fortune – are fighting a losing battle with ever cheaper sound systems. For most of them, it is not easy to get an opportunity to play live, let alone to find a place in a classical orchestra. Only few are lucky enough to make a career and big money; the rest end up as music teachers or have to retrain for jobs which will make them employable. As far as music teachers are concerned, whether retrained or otherwise, they cannot understand why so little emphasis is placed on aesthetic values in education today. They feel very disappointed as they see music giving way to mathematics and foreign languages. They claim that in the long run music can develop children’s creativity and imagination. Another benefit of musical skills, according to teachers, is making new friends. Music, they add, is a universal language which bridges the gaps in human relationships. It is often said that people from opposing factions are on common ground when they play or talk about music. Having presented the views of professional musicians and music teachers, I want to offer my thoughts on the subject. I have attended a music school, and I have to say that those were very important years in the formation of my character, temperament and stamina. On many occasions, being dejected and dispirited, I tried to seek and then I found refuge in my music. Also, through music, I have made a lot of friends and been to many places in the world. Last but not least, playing music is a good exercise for your brain and body and is more enjoyable than listening to it. The status of music would be raised if we made a concerted effort to give it due attention: music lessons as important as mathematics and languages, more financial support to professional musicians, less publicity surrounding the release of a new hit and more programmes about classical music.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Free Essays on The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Dialect

and poorly constructed sentances, â€Å"Git up! What you ‘bout.† They mostly conversed only with their fellow workers and children, and were not needing a formal education. Somewhere between these two stereotypes belongs the character Huckleberry Finn. He was raised by his abusive alcoholic father, learning the ways of solitude in nature and survival on the river. Later in his childhood though, he was taken in by a caring, upper class woman who nurtures him like the mother he never had, teaching him the ways of the bible and school. She also added to his kind personality. Huck is raised with both sides of lifestyles; half rich, half poor. This gives him the unique personality he has, being unconforming yet very caring. Twain’s knowledge of these not only makes his books more interesting, but accurate in the presentation of American cultures.... Free Essays on The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Dialect Free Essays on The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Dialect The land of the Mississippi is well known for it’s rich heritage and unique dialect. Mark Twain had a good understanding of this, and lifetime of experience with it. He knew a person’s history could roughly be predicted by the manner of their speaking. Such as rich, well bred, educated citizens often had a voice containing a large vocabulary, finely pronounced words, and produced easily understood sentences. This gave them the essence of ellegence and class, and as Twain put it, â€Å"He was well born, and that’s worth as much in a man as it is in a horse.† On the other end of citezenship was the un-schooled, un-privilaged, and poor slaves and servents. Their upbringing was focused less on impressing people with their intelligense, and more on survival, tolerance, and hard work. Their speech was hardly understandable. It consisted of broken words and poorly constructed sentances, â€Å"Git up! What you ‘bout.† They mostly conversed only with t heir fellow workers and children, and were not needing a formal education. Somewhere between these two stereotypes belongs the character Huckleberry Finn. He was raised by his abusive alcoholic father, learning the ways of solitude in nature and survival on the river. Later in his childhood though, he was taken in by a caring, upper class woman who nurtures him like the mother he never had, teaching him the ways of the bible and school. She also added to his kind personality. Huck is raised with both sides of lifestyles; half rich, half poor. This gives him the unique personality he has, being unconforming yet very caring. Twain’s knowledge of these not only makes his books more interesting, but accurate in the presentation of American cultures....

Friday, November 22, 2019

Biography of Hans Hofmann, Abstract Expressionism Pioneer

Biography of Hans Hofmann, Abstract Expressionism Pioneer Hans Hofmann (March 21, 1880 - February 17, 1966) was an American painter born in Germany. He was one of the foremost pioneers of the abstract expressionist movement. As an art instructor for four decades, he influenced some of the greatest painters of the 20th century. Fast Facts: Hans Hofmann Occupation: Painter and art teacherBorn: March 21, 1880 in Weissenburg, BavariaDied: February 17, 1966 in New York, New YorkSpouses: Maria Wolfegg (died 1963), and Renate Schmitz (married 1965)Selected Works: The Wind (1942), Pompeii (1959), Song of the Nightingale, (1964)Key Accomplishment: 1963 New York Museum of Modern Art retrospective that toured three continents.Notable Quote: In nature, light creates the color. In the picture, color creates the light. Early Life and Education Born to a German family in Bavaria, Hans Hofmann demonstrated a keen interest in science and mathematics from an early age. At age sixteen, he followed his fathers career path and took a job with the government. The younger Hofmann worked as an assistant to the director of Public Works. The position allowed him to indulge his love of mathematics while patenting a wide range of devices, including a portable freezer for military use and a radar system for sailing ships. During his government employment, Hans Hofmann began to study art. Between 1900 and 1904, while living in Munich, he met his future wife, Maria Miz Wolfegg. He also befriended Philipp Freudenberg, owner of the high-end department store Kaufhaus Gerson and a passionate art collector. Still Life. Geoffrey Clements / Getty Images Through Freudenbergs patronage over the next decade, Hans Hofmann was able to move to Paris with Miz. While in France, Hofmann immersed himself deeply in the avant-garde painting scene. He met Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and many others. As his reputation grew, Hofmanns painting Akt (Nude) appeared in the 1908 Berlin Secession show. Leaving Germany When World War I broke out in 1914, Hofmann and his wife were forced to leave Paris and return to Munich. The government disqualified him from military service due to a respiratory condition, and he opened an art school in 1915. In 1924, he married Miz. Hofmanns reputation as an art instructor reached overseas, and in 1930, a former student invited him to teach the 1930 summer art session at the University of California at Berkeley. After spending two years traveling between the U.S. and Germany to teach and work, he postponed a return trip to Germany for the foreseeable future. Hans Hofmann lived in the United States for most of the rest of his life, applying for U.S. citizenship in 1938 while Europe was barely a year away from the start of World War II. In 1934, Hans Hofmann opened his art school in New York and offered classes for the next 24 years. In the summer, he moved his instruction to Provincetown, Massachusetts. He earned tremendous respect as an instructor working as a mentor to Helen Frankenthaler, Ray Eames, and Lee Krasner, as well as becoming close friends with Jackson Pollock. Hans Hofmann (American, b. Germany, 1880-1966). Fantasia, 1943. Oil, duco, and casein on plywood. 51 1/2 x 36 5/8 in. (130.8 x 93 cm). Gift of the artist. Berkeley Art Museum, University of California. Photo: Benjamin Blackwell. Â © Renate, Hans Maria Hofmann Trust / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Abstract Expressionism Hans Hofmann was the only painter of the group of New York-based artists given credit for popularizing abstract expressionism who was directly involved with the Paris avant-garde before World War I. With that connection, he bridged the gap between two of the most influential communities of artists in the 20th century and inspired a generation of painters. In his own work, Hofmann explored color and form. He claimed that art could be given its voice by distilling it to its basics and removing unnecessary material. Among his prominent pieces was The Wind. For years, many historians believed that seeing paintings like it was a key influence on Jackson Pollocks development of the drip painting technique. More recent examination has led art historians to believe that Hofmann and Pollock were experimenting with poured paint at the same time. The Wind (1942). University of California, Berkeley Art Museum In 1944, Hans Hofmann received his first solo gallery show in New York. Art critics celebrated it as a step forward in the exploration of the abstract expressionist style. His work during the 1940s ranged from playful self-portraits executed with bold strokes to colorful geometric shapes that echoed the work of European masters Hans Arp and Joan Miro. Later Work After a retrospective at the Whitney in New York in 1957, Hofmann experienced a late-career renaissance of interest in his work. He quit teaching in 1958 and focused on the creation of art for the final years of his life. Artists and critics alike celebrated his work around the world. In 1963, New Yorks Museum of Modern Art mounted an even more extensive retrospective that traveled across the U.S., South America, and Europe. During the 1960s, Hofmann endured significant sadness due to the passing of many of his artist friends. In response to the deaths of Franz Kline and Jackson Pollock as well as others, he dedicated new pieces to their memory. The most significant blow occurred in 1963 with the passing of Miz due to a heart attack. In the fall of 1965, Hofmann married Renate Schmitz, a woman 50 years his junior. They remained together until his death from a heart attack on February 17, 1966. Hans Hofmann (American, b. Germany, 1880-1966). Memoria in Aeternum, 1962. Oil on canvas. 84 x 72 1/8 in. (213.3 x 183.2 cm). Gift of the artist. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Â © 2010 Renate, Hans Maria Hofmann Trust / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Educator Hans Hofmann was arguably the most influential art instructor of the 20th century. He influenced a generation of young European artists through his teaching in the first years after World War I. Later, particularly in the 1940s, his instruction inspired a generation of American artists. Hans Hofmanns School of Fine Art in Munich focused heavily on the ideas of Paul Cezanne, Wassily Kandinsky, and the Cubists. He offered regular one-on-one critiques, which were a rarity in art schools of the time. Some historians count Hofmanns Munich school as the first ever school of modern art. One of Hofmanns most lasting contributions to the understanding of art was his push/pull theory of spatial relations. He believed that contrasts of colors, forms, and textures created a push and pull in the mind of the viewer that must be balanced. Hofmann also believed that social propaganda or history lessons put an unnecessary burden on paintings and did not make them better works of art. The additional content worked against a vivid depiction of space and the pure magic of creating two-dimensional art on canvas. Legacy As an instructor and mentor, Hans Hofmann was at the center of some of the most significant movements in modern art from the turn of the 20th century to the 1960s. His avid interest in the colorful work of Henri Matisse took the young Hofmann away from a focus on cubism that ultimately led to his work with slabs of color in his mature abstract expressionist work of the 1950s and 1960s. Sources Dickey, Tina. Color Creates Light: Studies with Hans Hoffman. Trillistar Books, 2011.Goodman, Cynthia. Hans Hofmann. Prestel, 1990.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Operating systems and networking Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Operating systems and networking - Coursework Example BEFORE submission, each student must complete a faculty coursework cover sheet obtainable from the Student Office. This assignment is being marked by student number, please ensure that you complete the correct cover sheet. Notes: Late penalties You must meet all deadlines set. Failure to do so will result in a penalty. The usual deadline time is 1pm on the stated day – ALL work received after this time will be stamped LATE by Student Office staff. Work submitted late but within a week of the deadline will be capped at 40% and receive a grade of LP (Late Pass) unless it is not of a passing standard in which case it will receive a grade of LF (Late Fail). Work submitted beyond a week of the deadline without approval will get 0% with a grade of F0. If, however, you have a serious problem which prevents you from meeting the deadline you may be able to negotiate an extension in advance. In the first instance you should contact the Student Liaison Officer, Holly Rook in the Student Office for advice. However any extension will need to be obtained from your Module Leader who will sign your mitigating circumstances form and agree a new hand in date. Your work will then be marked without penalty. Use of Unfair Means You are reminded of the University’s plagiarism regulations (http://student.kingston.ac.uk/C6/Plagiarism/) and that the work you submit for assessment should contain no section copied in whole or in part from any other source unless where explicitly acknowledged by means of proper citation. Question I: Instruction Set Architecture (20 marks) 1.1. Define Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). Use examples to assist your answer. (5 marks) I.S.A is an acronym for â€Å"instruction set architecture â€Å"and it serves as an interface between the software and hardware, and is that section of a processor which is visible to the programmer .Various important terms are interrelated with this concept which includes operand, its size, its location and its type. Various important types of I.S.A: General Purpose Register (G.P.R): Operands in this case are mostly the registers or memory location Stack: The operand is implicitly on top of the stack. Accumulator: one of the operand is the accumulator Each of the above have their own strengths and weaknesses .Recently most processors are General Purpose oriented .Over period of time registers use has made things faster and easy .Examples of G.P.U are Motorola 86xxx,IBM 360 Various extensions: RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Architecture .This form of Architecture introduces pipelining concept and has large number of registers compared to CISC. It lays emphasis on the software; with lower cycles per second .The embedded systems are prime example of this type of architecture processor, especially the gaming consoles CISC: Complex Instruction Set Architecture, example in this case is Intel architecture of 80 x86 and the most ubiquitous Pentium Family processors are all CISC. Processor performs most of the instructions operations. It lays emphasis on the hardware, and has higher cycles per second 1.2. A processor has a 32-bit instruction format with the following fields: opcode: 8 bits ra: 6 bits rb: 6 bits rc: 6 bits rd: 6 bits Where ra, rb and rc specify three input registers and rd specifies one destination register. If there is a single register file to store the identifications of all registers, how many

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The United States should intervene in the Syrian Civil War to Essay

The United States should intervene in the Syrian Civil War to overthrow the Assad regime - Essay Example ed out not to be the case because, despite its repressive nature, the Assad government still has a lot of support from the military as well as some of the Syrian population. This is the reason why the United States is duty bound to intervene in this conflict on the side of the rebels and overthrow this regime to end it. It is estimated that more than sixty thousand Syrians have lost their lives since the beginning of the conflict and such a high number of deaths is not reasonable. This number of deaths for the sake of a few men holding on to power is unacceptable and the United States, as the defender of democracy, should lead the way in overthrowing them (Friedman). Syria is one of the countries of the Middle East whose stability and strategic position is essential for the maintenance of stability in the region. The conflict that is currently going on in this country is likely to destabilize the region due to the influx of refugees from Syria to its neighbors as well as the spilling over of the conflict to such volatile countries as Lebanon. In order to prevent such an occurrence in a region where it has many interests, it is essential for the United States to intervene this early in the conflict to establish stability. The promotion of democracy has always been one of the reasons why the United States has seen fit to intervene in the affairs of other states. In this case, Syria should not be an exception mainly because its government has for the last fifty years, been among the most repressive in the world. It is only logical for the United States to intervene because this opportunity promotes its democratic ideals to a part of the world that has until recently, experienced little of it (Friedman). Among the most important reasons for the intervention of the United States in Syria is to ensure that a government, which is friendly to the West, is put in place. The Assad regime has proven itself to be against the strategic interests of the United States and its

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Scientific Writing Essay Example for Free

Scientific Writing Essay Scientific writing -is a form of technical writing that reports scientific observations and results in a manner governed by specific conventions. Examples and Observations (Definition #1): Sustaining a dead body until its organs can be harvested is a tricky process requiring the latest in medical technology. But its also a distinct anachronism in an era when medicine is becoming less and less invasive. Fixing blocked coronary arteries, which not long ago required prying a patients chest open with a saw and spreader, can now be accomplished with a tiny stent delivered to the heart on a slender wire threaded up the leg. Exploratory surgery has given way to robot cameras and high-resolution imaging. Already, we are eyeing the tantalizing summit of gene therapy, where diseases are cured even before they do damage. Compared with such micro scale cures, transplantswhich consist of salvaging entire organs from a heart-beating cadaver and sewing them into a different bodyseem crudely mechanical, even medieval. (Jennifer Kahn Stripped for Parts. Wired, March 2003. Reprinted in the Best American Science Writing 2004, edited by Dava Sobel. HarperCollins, 2004) On Explaining Science 1. The question is not should you explain a concept or process, but how can you do so in a way that is clear and so readable that it is simply part of the story? 2. Use explanatory strategies such as . . . Active-voice verbs Use the Active Voice . . . Most of the Time When a verb is in the active voice, the subject of the sentence is also the doer of the action. Active Voice- John picked up the bag It is in the active voice because the subject, John, is also the thing or person doing the action of picking up. Passive Voice -The bag was picked up by John The subject of the sentence, bag, is the passive receiver of the action. . . . Analogies and metaphors Analogies- comparison between two things that are similar in some way, often used to explain something or make it easier to understand. Metaphors- the use to describe somebody or something of a word or phrase that is  not meant literally but by means of vivid comparison expresses something about him, her or it  ex. Saying that somebody is a snake. Backing into an explanation, that is, explaining before labeling Selecting critical features of a process and being willing to set aside the others, as too much explanatory detail will hurt rather than help. 3. People who study what makes an explanation successful have found that while giving examples is helpful, giving nonexamples is even better.  Nonexamples are examples of what something is not. Often, that kind of example will help clarify what the thing is. If you were trying to explain groundwater, for instance, you might say that, while the term seems to suggest an actual body of water, such as a lake or an underground river, that would be an inaccurate image. Groundwater is not a body of water in the traditional sense; rather, as Katherine Rowan, communications professor, points out, it is water moving slowly but relentlessly through cracks and crevices in the ground below us. . . . 4.Be acutely aware of your readers beliefs. You might write that chance is the best explanation of a disease cluster; but this could be counterproductive if your readers reject chance as an explanation for anything. If you are aware that readers beliefs may collide with an explanation you give, you may be able to write in a way that doesnt cause these readers to block their minds to the science you explain.